China is facing a water resources crisis with growing concerns as to the reliable supply of water for agricultural, industrial and domestic needs. High rainfall variability (both within the year and across years) and increasing consumptive use across the country exacerbates the situation further and is a constraint on future development. During his visit to New York, Xi Chen worked on examining the overall water situation in China. Obtaining data for such an analysis, especially for all China is certainly a challenging task and Xi Chen has to be commended for his perseverance during this phase.
In this project, we modeled the differences in water demand and supply and their spatio-temporal distribution to quantify the dimensions of the water risk. The work provides a detailed quantitative assessment of water risk as measured by the cumulated deficits for China. Considering daily precipitation and temperature variability over fifty years and the current water demands, risk measures are developed to inform county level water deficits that account for both within year and across year variations in climate. We choose political rather than watershed boundaries since economic activity and water use are organized by county and the political process is best informed through that unit. The risk measures highlight North China Plain counties as highly water stressed. These regions now have depleted groundwater aquifers.
Water requirements for industrial use and energy and mineral processing and production will continue to increase in China, as will the need for high quality domestic water use as living standards and economic factors continue to improve. Given this, we also provided some recommendations for future water sustainability in China. The full article can be found here.